kai\ e0pimeloumenoj; tw|~ de\ e3petai de\ me/gaj h9gemw&n eu0 ou0ranw|~ the devil they knew to be prince of the air, and this lower region to be filled in. 3 For the truth of this I convene the populace of Rome, the nativesof the Seven Hills, and let them answer whether their tongues, asmuch Roman as it is, have spared any of their own Caesars? lib. x. ep. 110 Tertullian's Apology for the Christians. 1 To set up truth is our victory, and the victor's glory is toplease his God, and the precious spoil of that victory is eternal life ;and this life we certainly win by dying for it, therefore we conquerwhen we are killed, and being killed are out of the reach of youand all other vexations for ever. Get this from a library! Not. 88 taij gunaici\ pare/xein nekro_n lou&ein. But our author tells them that the flesh and blood of Christianswas like other folks, that they understood natural rights and liberties, had thesame aversion to suffering, the same passion for preservation and pleasure thatthe heathens had ; and whereas they alone were the people who seemed to haveforgot humanity, by their enduring the most exquisite torments not only withpatience, but with joy and thanksgiving, yet this was far from the effect of anystoical apathy, but purely the strength of their faith, which overcame the reluct- ance of nature, the sure and certain hope of the resurrection to eternal life, whichenabled them to despise the life present, and that light affliction which is but fora moment, and which worketh for them a far more exceeding and eternal weightof glory. CONCERNING THE BIRTH AND CRUCIFIXION OF JESUS CHRIST. But the difference between the life of a Christianand a philosopher was not the only characteristic ; for, says our Tertullian,Nomen hoc Philosophorum Daemonia non fugat. Hieron. You mayobserve from hence that the Christians of old, as devout and religious as theywere, yet they conversed and traded with the heathen world, were active anddiligent in their secular professions, and refused no calling whatever that wasinnocent in itself and useful to the public ; for had they been never so good, andlived only to God and themselves, in woods and cloisters, they had not beenshining lights, but candles under a bushel. The Romans therefore may compute their sacrilegesby their trophies, and tell how many gods they have triumphedover, by the nations they have conquered; and withal rememberthat all the statues of the captive deities now in the temple are butso many spoils of war. Thus Virgil, Thus St. Cyprian, de Idol. Was there any worshipper of the true God atRome when Hannibal made such havoc of the Romans at Cannae, andcomputed the numbers of the slaughtered gentry by bushels of ringspicked up after the battle ? Why will you thus persist in error? 10. Butnow they lie under His just judgments, and which too they havefelt long before the name of Christian had a being in the world, andwhose goods man enjoyed long before he had made himself any. Some of the blinder and perverser sort of heathens deridedthe primitive martyrs (as their passive followers since have been) for a sect ofbesotted, infatuated fellows, who did neither know nor feel what it was theyunderwent. Yet even this same philosopher after he had given such aninstance of his true wisdom in denying the divinity of your gods,yet notwithstanding this (such was the inconstancy of the man) he. proChristian. lib. 1 CONCERNING THE SHAMEFUL REPRESENTATION OF THE GODS UPON THE STAGE AND AMPHITHEATRE. TheLacedaimonian method, of enuring their people to hardiness, is toput them into a course of scourging, and to double their disciplinein the presence of any of their friends, who read the scholars alecture of patience while they are under the lash; and everyscholar carried home a quantity of honour, according to thequantity of blood he left behind him. Thus therefore by a touch of our hand, or thebreath of our mouth, scorched as it were with the prospect and repre- sentation of future flames, they go out of the bodies they possessat our command, but sore against their will, and gnashing and red-hot with shame, to quit their possessions in the presence of theiradorers. I HAVE now, in my opinion, given sufficient proofs of the false andthe true divinity; having not only disputed and demonstrated thispoint from arguments drawn from reason, but also from the veryconfessions of those you acknowledge for gods; so that nothingmore seems necessary to be reinforced upon that head. For, say they, philosophers prescribe and profess the, Tertullian's Apology for the Christians. Dr. Potter observes from hence thatamong many other reasons why a certain proportion for the maintenance of theclergy was not fixed by the apostles, this was one, that there could be no occasionto determine the portion then, when men laid all they had at their feet; and thesame reason held good to our Tertullian's time, for he says here that Christianshad all things in common but their wives. And yet these gods will endure to beworshipped by such enemies, and decree them a perpetual empire1for so doing, when in honour they ought to be revenged upontheir outrages, rather than be cajoled by their adoration ; but godswho have neither sensation nor knowledge may be injured with asmuch impunity as they are served with vanity. THAT THE CHRISTIANS ARE CONDEMNED MERELY UPON THE cap. We pray then without a monitor, because dePectore, from the heart; which may either signify that we repeat not our prayersaloud after the priest, as you do, but join with him in our soul; or else, that wecan say our prayers by heart, and so have no occasion for such a monitor, andthen de Pectore answers exactly to IF then (as I have elsewhere declared) we Christians are expresslycommanded by our Master to love our enemies, whom then havewe left to hate? M. Aurelioexempto, die decimo sexto Kalend. souls of just men in general ascended not into heaven till after the resurrection ; Was it not for fear of swelling this tract beyondthe bounds of an Apology, Tertullian says, he would enter into a particular proofof the antiquity of the Holy Scriptures. And for afurther proof of this difference, consider what was the answer thatThales the prince of naturalists made Croesus, when he was pressedby him plainly to declare his positive notions of the divine nature.Bid not the philosopher put off the prince from time to time withhis " I will consider on it" ? iv. first ? 0Asklhpiw|~ o0fei/lomen a0lektruo&na, a0lla a0po&dote kai\ mh_ Cauta cuvinte şi fraze milioane în toate limbile. A Christian then,says Tertullian, never thinks himself so fine, never so illustrious as at the stake,with fire and faggot about him ; he then is in his triumphal chariot going toheaven in state. Pro salute Imperatoris sacrifuare. And will not many scruple to eat a piece of beef, forfear of eating a piece of their ancestors ? Is For why should we dare tobe so singularly sober, chaste, and honest upon Caesar's birthday,and be so unfashionably religious in discharging our vows andrejoicings for him ? Andthirdly, that it was looked upon as the forerunner of future condemnation in theworld to come. But they which put you upon forcing us to sacrificeto the gods are the same spirits which inform you to make ussacrifice1 for the safety of the emperor; and so Caesar's safetybeing twisted with the honour of the gods, you are by this stratagemnecessitated to compel, and we to suffer. But you seem to be ignorant that the geniiare called demons, and from thence by a diminutive word demonia,that is, little devils. to makebonfires, to bring out tables and feasts in the streets, and meta- morphose the whole city into a tavern ;2 to make the conduits runwine, and see the mob suck up dirt and liquor together, and run. Cogimur ad Divinarum literarum Commemorationem, etc. A pickpocket. 11, etc. Hear what his scholar St. Cyprian says to Demetrianus, proconsulof Africa, upon the same subject : O si audire eos velles, et videre quando a nobisadjurantur, et torquentur Spiritualibus flagris, et verborum tormentis deobsessis corporibus ejiciuntur, quando ejulantes et gementes voce humana,et potestate Divina flagella et verbera sentientes, venturum Judicium confitentur ;veni, et cognosce vera esse qua dicimus. Another way of disguising their thefts was by taking the Hebrew in itsliteral and proper sense, thus finding Noah (whom Bochartus has demonstratedto be the same with Saturn) to be called, Gen. xi. However, that which you are pleased tocall madness and despair in us are the very actions which undervirtue's standard lift up your sons of fame and glory, and emblazonthem to future ages. They would never, Isay, baulk a lie, in so grand a concern, was it in their power to lie,when a Christian interrogates them in order to give you a proof ofhis religion by their own confession. A CONTINUATION OF THE UNLIMITED LOVE OF CHRISTIANS. In these wordsour author plainly alludes to the Second Epistle of St. Peter ii. n. But above all, see thisphilosopher hunted through all his coverts, and traced home to the prophets byEusebius in his Praepar. p. 192Eucharistiam quotidie ad cibum Salutis accipimus, intercedentealiquo graviore delicto, dum abstenti et non communicantes a Coelesti Paneprohibemur; a Christi corpore separamur. " When this holy army of supplicants ismet and disposed in godly array, we all send up our prayers forthe life of the emperors,1 for their ministers, for magistrates, forthe good of the State, for the peace of the empire, and for retardingthe final doom. And it is reallyworth observing that in all these public evils the towns and templesboth are involved in the same misfortune; which would not be,methinks, had your gods anything to do in the matter, because theywould hardly have a hand in doing themselves a mischief. kai\ qu~sai kai\ diaswzesqai. Vid. A FURTHER VINDICATION OF THE USEFULNESS OF CHRISTIANS There is a most bitter .sarcasm implied in these words, Hoc agite, that is," be intent upon your sacrifice, and wrack out the soul of a Christian while it ispraying to God for the life of the emperor; " wherein our author manifestlyalludes to the custom just now mentioned from Plutarch, that while the priestwas sacrificing, the crier or praeco went behind with these words, Hoc age, mindwhat you are about; for thus Plutarch tells us in Coriolano, Thus then he expresses his zealwith a justifiable primitive warmth, p. 17"Whatever other cases allow of,certainly the defence of religion by arms is never to be admitted ; for the nature ofthe Christian religion is such that it excludes all carnal weapons from its defence.And when I consider how expressly Christ forbids His disciples to resist evil,Matt. You would be at aloss for men to govern, and in the pitiful remains you would findmore enemies than citizens; but now you exceed in friends, be- cause you exceed in Christians. tom. 94 Let an emperormake war upon heaven, and pride himself with the thoughts ofleading captive heaven in triumph; let him set guards upon heaven,and try to reduce it to a Roman province, and he will find hisweakness. However, if we enter into a comparison of past and presentcalamities, we shall find the account much abated since the comingof Christianity ; for since that time the innocence of Christians hastempered the iniquities of the age, and there have been a set ofmen who knew the right way of deprecating the vengeance of God.Lastly, when we are in great want of rain, and the year in anxietyabout the succeeding fruits, then you are at your baths anddebauches, and offering your water sacrifices to Jupiter,1 andordering processions on barefoot for the people. A trader in fame, and a saver of souls." lib. Vid. which we have in Eusebius, pursues the same design. 1 3 Putasne Amen. guarded about with a wall of fire, like what the torrid zone is commonly Sed et juramus, sicut non per Genios Caesarum, ita per Salutem corum, etc.Here we have the lawfulness of an oath expressly asserted by our Tertullian,though now gainsaid by some new-fashioned Christians (if the Quakers maybe called Christians), and an oath too by the life of the emperors ; and a verysacred oath too it is, says our author, when so sacred a person is sworn by.They would not swear by their genii indeed, because they looked upon that asswearing by the devil and his angels; and thus we find that Joseph swore by thelife of Pharaoh. I care not afarthing for Janus, let him turn his brows upon me from whichforehead he pleases. However, if your templewardens have reason to complain against Christians, the public, Iam sure, has not, but on the contrary very great reason to thank usfor the customs we pay with the same conscience as we abstainfrom stealing. made ourselves ample satisfaction by returning evil for evil, had wenot thought it unlawful to quit the score of one injury with another.But God forbid that any of this divine sect should seek revengeby fire, after the manner of men, or grudge to suffer what is sentto refine them. For this is our notion of a resurrection, to be thatagain after death, which we were before; for, according to thePythagorean doctrine, these souls now are not the same they were,because they cannot be what they were not without ceasing to bewhat they were. 119, it is because I am a better husband for the public than to washaway day and night to so little purpose ; however, I bathe at properhours for my health's sake; it is time enough in conscience to growstiff and pale with washing when I am dead. Is it not therefore more becoming topresume those to be gods, who do the things which make otherspass for gods, than to bring down the gods to a level with demons ?