The Ancien Régime (/ ˌ ɒ̃ s j æ̃ r eɪ ˈ ʒ iː m /; French: [ɑ̃sjɛ̃ ʁeʒim]; literally "old rule"), also known as the Old Regime was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until the French Revolution of 1789, which led to the abolition (1792) of hereditary monarchy and of the feudal system of the French nobility. The military privileges were incorporated in the Edict in order to allay the fears of the minority. Over time it became clear these privileges were open to abuse and when in 1620 the Huguenots proclaimed a constitution for the "Republic of the Reformed Churches of France", the Prime Minister Cardinal Richelieu (1585–1642) invoked the full powers of the state; He captured La Rochelle after a long siege in 1628. The first sixteen were created in 1542 by edict of Henry II. Until the French Revolution, the monastic community constituted a central element of the economic, social, and religious life of many localities under the Old Regime. The representative of the king in his provinces and cities was the gouverneur. Press, 1994. In 1670, their purview was overseen by the présidiaux (see below). OK. Convents tended to be more isolated and less centrally controlled. "From Renaissance Monarchy to Absolute Monarchy: French Kings, Nobles & Estates". Much of the reigns of Henry IV (r. 1589–1610) and Louis XIII (r. 1610–1643) and the early years of Louis XIV (r. 1643–1715) focused on administrative centralization. The need for centralization in this period was directly linked to the question of royal finances and the ability to wage war. The prévôts or their equivalent were the first-level judges for non-nobles and ecclesiastics. Dans les affaires privées, ils suivaient les règles établies au cours des âges. It conjured up a society so encrusted with anachronisms that only a shock of great violence could free the living organism within. The desire for more efficient tax collection was one of the major causes for French administrative and royal centralization in the early modern period. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 resolved all of the issues. By the terms of the Treaty of Ryswick (1697), Louis XIV retained the whole of Alsace, but he was forced to return Lorraine to its ruler and give up any gains on the right bank of the Rhine. Ces bande… "Society in Crisis: France in the Sixteenth Century." Royal officers chosen from the highest nobility, provincial and city governors (oversight of provinces and cities was frequently combined) were predominantly military positions in charge of defense and policing. Queen Anne was dead, and her re-successor King George I was a Hanoverian who moved his court to London, but never became fluent in English and surrounded himself with German advisors. Paris: Laffont, 1998. The fighting generally favoured Louis XIV's armies, but by 1696, France was in the grip of an economic crisis. Hyman, 1988. A growing number of the French citizenry had absorbed the ideas of "equality" and "freedom of the individual" as presented by Voltaire, Denis Diderot, Turgot, and other philosophers and social theorists of the Enlightenment. The title "gouverneur" first appeared under Charles VI. The main source of royal administrative power in the provinces in the 16th and early 17th centuries fell to the gouverneurs (who represented "the presence of the king in his province"), positions which had long been held by only the highest ranked families in the realm. and numerous border provinces (such as Roussillon, Cerdagne, Calais, Béarn, Navarre, County of Foix, Flanders, Artois, Lorraine, Alsace, Trois-Évêchés, Franche-Comté, Savoy, Bresse, Bugey, Gex, Nice, Provence, Dauphiné, and Brittany) were autonomous or foreign-held (as by the Holy Roman Empire); there were also foreign enclaves, like the Comtat Venaissin. 2 talking about this. Sujet 2: L’Ancien Régime à travers l’adage “une foi, une loi, un roi” “Une foi, une loi, un roi”, cet adage exprime l’importance de la religion sous l’Ancien Régime. Bailliages and présidiaux were also the first court for certain crimes (so-called cas royaux; these cases had formerly been under the supervision of the local seigneurs): sacrilege, lèse-majesté, kidnapping, rape, heresy, alteration of money, sedition, insurrections, and the illegal carrying of arms. The administrative and social structures of the Ancien Régime were the result of centuries of nation-building, legislative acts (like the Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts), internal conflicts and civil wars, but they remained a confusing patchwork of local privilege and historic differences until the French Revolution brought about a radical suppression of administrative incoherence. It proved disastrous to the Huguenots and costly for France. In the exercise of their legal functions, they sat alone, but had to consult with certain lawyers ("avocats" or "procureurs") chosen by themselves, whom, to use the technical phrase, they "summoned to their council". In the 17th century peasants had ties to the market economy, provided much of the capital investment necessary for agricultural growth, and frequently moved from village to village (or town). Collection: Bouquins. Crimes of desertion, highway robbery, and mendicants (so-called cas prévôtaux) were under the supervision of the prévôt des maréchaux, who exacted quick and impartial justice. Historians explain the sudden collapse of the Ancien Régime as stemming in part from its rigidity. The French monarchy was irrevocably linked to the Catholic church (the formula says "la France est la fille aînée de l'église", or "France is the eldest daughter of the church"), and French theorists of the divine right of kings and sacerdotal power in the Renaissance had made these links explicit: Henry IV was able to ascend to the throne only after abjuring Protestantism. A szó etimológiája: Két ősi francia szó egybeolvadásából keletkezett: . The "chambre des comptes" supervised the spending of public funds, the protection of royal lands ("domaine royal"), and legal issues involving these areas. Despite efforts by the kings to create a centralized state out of these provinces, France in this period remained a patchwork of local privileges and historical differences. Syntax; Advanced Search; New. Escalating the attack, he tried to forcibly re-Catholicize the Huguenots by the employment of armed dragonnades (soldiers) to occupy and loot their houses, and finally by the revocation (Oct. 18, 1685) of the liberal Edict of Nantes of 1598. The main source of royal administrative power in the provinces in the 16th and early 17th centuries fell to the "gouverneurs" (who represented "the presence of the king in his province"), positions which had long been held by only the highest ranked families in the realm. This made for greater diversity among them than among male monasteries.[24]. To this mindset, the Ancien Régime expressed a bygone era of refinement and grace, before the Revolution and its associated changes disrupted the aristocratic tradition and ushered in a crude, uncertain modernity. Religious practices which veered too close to Protestantism (like Jansenism) or to the mystical (like Quietism) were also severely suppressed, as too libertinage or overt atheism. The resulting Truce of Ratisbon guaranteed France's new borders for 20 years, but Louis XIV's subsequent actions – notably his revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 – led to the deterioration of his military and political dominance. The internal conflicts and dynastic crises of the 16th and 17th centuries (the Wars of Religion, the conflict with the Habsburgs) and the territorial expansion of France in the 17th century demanded great sums which needed to be raised through taxes, such as the taille and the gabelle and by contributions of men and service from the nobility. The ordinance of Blois of 1579 reduced their number to 12, but an ordinance of 1779 increased their number to 39 (18 first-class governors, 21 second-class governors). In addition to their role as appellate courts, regional parlements had gained the privilege to register the edicts of the king and to present the king with official complaints concerning the edicts; in this way, they had acquired a limited role as the representative voice of (predominantly) the magistrate class. Russiawas the most populated European country at the time. Furthermore, contact between American revolutionaries and the French soldiers which provided aid to the Continental Army in North America during the Revolutionary War helped spread revolutionary ideals to the French people. In the mid 15th century, France was significantly smaller than it is today, [Bély, 21. Spain lost its European holdings outside the homeland itself. New analysis shows that these civil wars were in fact religious in nature, remnants of the French Wars of Religion that largely ended with the Edict of Nantes in 1598. La France de l'Ancien Régime une société coutumière, les différents groupes sociaux n'avaient pas les mêmes droits et devoirs dans la même région et entre régions différentes. Spain's American colonies produced enormous quantities of silver, which were brought to Spain every few years in convoys. : "For church history in the 16th century, see Reformation and French Wars of Religion.". [3] The appointments of intendants—representatives of royal power in the provinces—did much to undermine local control by regional nobles. Pierre Goubert an Daniel Roche, Les Français et l'Ancien Régime, 1984. The king (not the pope) nominated bishops, but typically had to negotiate with noble families that had close ties to local monasteries and church establishments. The Catholic Church controlled about 40% of the wealth, tied up in long-term endowments that could be added to but not reduced. Much of the reigns of Henry IV, Louis XIII and the early years of Louis XIV were focused on administrative centralization. France's main foreign policy decision-maker was Cardinal Fleury. This was a confrontation between two different styles[8] of Ancien Regime, the french style and the spanish style (or Habsburg's style). The "Etats généraux" (convoked in this period in 1484, 1560–61, 1576–77, 1588–89, 1593, 1614, and 1789) had been reunited in times of fiscal crisis or convoked by parties malcontent with royal prerogatives (the Ligue, the Huguenots), but they had no true power, the dissensions between the three orders rendered them weak and they were dissolved before having completed their work. Certain provinces and cities had won special privileges (such as lower rates in the gabelle or salt tax). By 1620 the Huguenots were on the defensive, and the government increasingly applied pressure. The "recettes générales", commonly known as "généralités", were initially only taxation districts (see State finances below). The médecins du roi at the end of the ancien régime and in the French Revolution. C'est le siècle qui a forgé toutes les armes victorieuses contre cet insaisissable adversaire qu'on appelle l'ennui. ancien régime, lit. The national judicial system was made-up of tribunals divided into bailliages (in northern France) and sénéchaussées (in southern France); these tribunals (numbering around 90 in the 16th century, and far more at the end of the 18th) were supervised by a lieutenant général and were subdivided into: In an effort to reduce the case load in the parlements, certain bailliages were given extended powers by Henry II of France: these were called présidiaux. Administrative (including taxation), legal (parlement), judicial, and ecclesiastic divisions and prerogatives frequently overlapped (for example, French bishoprics and dioceses rarely coincided with administrative divisions). Under Charles VIII and Louis XII the king's counsel was dominated by members of twenty or so noble or rich families; under François I the number of counsellors increased to roughly 70 individuals (although the old nobility was proportionally more important than in the previous century). Walpole strongly rejected militaristic options, and promoted a peace program. Administrative (including taxation), legal (parlement), judicial, and ecclesiastic divisions and prerogatives frequently overlapped (for example, French bishoprics and dioceses rarely coincided with administrative divisions). There would be no inquisition in France, and papal decrees could operate only after the government approved them. However Sir Robert Walpole was the dominant decision-maker, 1722-1740, although the role was not yet called prime minister. As the revolution proceeded, power devolved from the monarchy and the privileged-by-birth to more-representative political bodies, like legislative assemblies, but conflicts among the formerly allied republican groups became the source of considerable discord and bloodshed. Jones C. Louis XIV also accepted William III as the rightful King of England, while the Dutch acquired their barrier fortress system in the Spanish Netherlands to help secure their own borders. The appeals from their sentences went to the bailliages, who also had jurisdiction in the first instance over actions brought against nobles. There was no national citizenship. ^ ordonnance sur le roi Louis XIII de France qui regroupe diverses décisions prises également par divers organes collégiaux en ce qui concerne la législation française. * "Conseil royal de commerce", Judicial and Administrative Councils:* "Conseil d'État et des Finances" or "Conseil ordinaire des Finances" — by the late 17th century, its functions were largely taken over by the three following sections. Their role in provincial unrest during the civil wars led Cardinal Richelieu to create the more tractable positions of intendants of finance, policing and justice, and in the 18th century the role of provincial governors was greatly curtailed. Louis XIV of France created several additional tax systems, including the "capitation" (begun in 1695) which touched every person including nobles and the clergy (although exemption could be bought for a large one-time sum) and the "dixième" (1710-1717, restarted in 1733), enacted to support the military, which was a true tax on income and on property value. Secretary of State of the Maison du Roi (the "Maison du Roi" was the king's royal entourage and personal military guard), who also oversaw the clergy, the affairs of Paris, and the king's buildings. La date de commencement de la France en tant que royaume et entité politique constituée est sujette à controverse. also had a candidate: Philip, the grandson of powerful King Louis XIV. The most important of these royal tribunals was the prévôté[19] and présidial of Paris, the Châtelet, which was overseen by the prévôt of Paris, civil and criminal lieutenants, and a royal officer in charge of maintaining public order in the capital, the Lieutenant General of Police of Paris. In 1680, the system of the Ferme Générale was established, a franchised customs and excise operation in which individuals bought the right to collect the taille on behalf of the king, through 6-years adjudications (certain taxes like the aides and the gabelle had been farmed out in this way as early as 1604). Since the 15th century, much of the seigneur's legal purview had been given to the bailliages or sénéchaussées and the présidiaux (see below), leaving only affairs concerning seigneurial dues and duties, and small affairs of local justice. *Secretaries of State: created in 1547 by Henri II, of greater importance after 1588, generally 4 in number, but occasionally 5:**Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs**Secretary of State for War, also oversaw France's border provinces. In an era where the ideas of honour and prestige are slowly dying to modern arms while the grounds to modern diplomacy have been laid out. "Bailliages" and "présidiaux" were also the first court for certain crimes (so-called "cas royaux"; these cases had formerly been under the supervision of the local seigneurs): sacrilege, lèse-majesté, kidnapping, rape, heresy, alteration of money, sedition, insurrections, and the illegal carrying of arms. [Salmon, p. Elle a cependant été utilisée telle quelle dès la… …   Encyclopédie Universelle, ancien regime — 1794, from Fr. While they did not directly manage the religious life of the faithful (parish priests did that), monks did constitute a motivating force in it through their setting up of a parish clergy, providing alms and social services, and playing the role of intercessors. Other temporal powers of the church included playing a political role as the first estate in the "États Généraux" and the "États Provinciaux" (Provincial Assemblies) and in Provincial Conciles or Synods convoked by the king to discuss religious issues. L'Amour, la Poésie, la Musique, le Théâtre, la Peinture, l'Architecture, la Cour, les Salons, les Parcs et les Jardins, la Gastronomie, les Lettres, les Arts, les Sciences, tout concourait à la satisfaction des appétits physiques, intellectuels et même moraux, au raffinement de toutes les voluptés, de toutes les élégances et de tous les plaisirs. In the 17th century, oversight of the généralités was subsumed by the intendants of finance, justice and police, and the expression "généralité and "intendance" became roughly synonymous. The nature of male and female monasticism differed greatly in France both before and during the revolution. Only a few Protestant villages remained in isolated areas. ↘(the Ancien Régime) the political and social system in France before the… …   English new terms dictionary, ancien regime — [[t]ɑ͟ːnsjɒn reɪʒi͟ːm[/t]] 1) N SING: usu the N The ancien regime was the political and social system in France before the revolution of 1789. As a sign of French absolutism, they ceased to be convoked from 1614 to 1789. The "stable" core of French society, town guildspeople and village labourers, included cases of staggering social and geographic continuity, but even this core required regular renewal. Louis XIV had emerged from the Franco-Dutch War in 1678 as the most powerful monarch in Europe, an absolute ruler who had won numerous military victories. This system first came to use in 1523 under François I. The provincial estates proved more effective, and were convoked by the king to respond to fiscal and tax policies. In addition, certain provinces within France were ostensibly personal fiefdoms of noble families (like the Bourbonnais, Marche, Forez and Auvergne provinces held by the House of Bourbon until the provinces were forceably integrated into the royal domain in 1527 after the fall of the Charles III, Duke of Bourbon). King Charles II reigned 1665 to 1700, but he was in very poor physical and mental health.[6]. [11] From the perspective of France's enemies, the notion of France gaining enormous strength by taking over Spain and all its European and overseas possessions was anathema. Louis XIV acted more and more aggressively to force the Huguenots to convert. In 1500, France had 14 archbishoprics (Lyon, Rouen, Tours, Sens, Bourges, Bordeaux, Auch, Toulouse, Narbonne, Aix-en-Provence, Embrun, Vienne, Arles, and Rheims) and 100 bishoprics. Political power was widely dispersed among certain elites. From the late fifteenth century up to the late seventeenth century (and again in the 1760s), France underwent a massive territorial expansion and an attempt to better integrate its provinces into an administrative whole. The following were cours souveraines, or superior courts, whose decisions could only be revoked by "the king in his conseil" (see administration section below). The term Ancien Régime first appeared in print in English in 1794 (two years after the inauguration of the First French Republic), and was originally pejorative in nature; Simon Schama has observed: "virtually as soon as the term was coined, 'old regime' was automatically freighted with associations of both traditionalism and senescence. See Salmon, .73.] Paris: Laffont, 2001. In that year, the surintendant Nicolas Fouquet fell from power and the position was replaced by the less powerful contrôleur général des finances. L'expression « Ancien Régime » s'est longtemps appliquée aux seules institutions politiques et sociales de la monarchie française, renversées par la Révolution et symbolisées par l'absolutisme royal et l'existence de privilèges, fondements d'une société juridiquement établie sur l'inégalité naturelle et le régime du privilège. With the names and subdivisions of the 17th - 18th century, these subcouncils were: Governmental Councils:* "Conseil d'en haut" ("High Council", concerning the most important matters of state) - composed of the king, the crown prince (the "dauphin"), the chancellor, the "contrôleur général des finances", and the secretary of state in charge of foreign affairs. Its two main strongholds were south west France and Normandy, but even in these districts the Catholics were a majority. In the 16th century, the kings of France, in an effort to exert more direct control over royal finances and to circumvent the double-board (accused of poor oversight) – instituted numerous administrative reforms, including the restructuring of the financial administration and an increase in the number of généralités. Hubert Méthivier, La fin de l'Ancien Régime, 1974. The Ancien Régime, a French term rendered in English as “Old Rule,” “Old Kingdom,” or simply “Old Regime,” refers primarily to the aristocratic, social and political system established in France from (roughly) the 15th century to the 18th century under the late Valois and Bourbon dynasties. Communities of nuns in France on the eve of Revolution had, on average, 25 members and a median age of 48 years. The royal administration during the Renaissance was divided between a small counsel (the "secret" and later "high" counsel) of 6 or fewer members (3 members in 1535, 4 in 1554) for important matters of state; and a larger counsel for judicial or financial affairs. Collins (1991) argues that the Annales School paradigm underestimated the role of the market economy; failed to explain the nature of capital investment in the rural economy; and grossly exaggerated social stability. The prévôts or their equivalent were the first-level judges for non-nobles and ecclesiastics. This system first came to use in 1522 under Francis I. Some orders, like the Benedictines, were largely rural; others, like the Dominicans (also called "Jacobins") and the Franciscans (also called "cordeliers") operated in cities.[21]. In 1604, Sully created a new tax, the "paulette" or "annual tax" (1/60 of the amount of the official charge), which permitted the title-holder to be free of the 40 day rule. The central government was quite weak, with a mediocre bureaucracy, and few able leaders. Kingdom of France Structure …   Wikipedia, ANCIEN RÉGIME — L’expression «Ancien Régime», dont le caractère dénigrant ne peut faire de doute, a été popularisée par le célèbre livre d’Alexis de Tocqueville, paru en 1856, L’Ancien Régime et la Révolution. The other traditional representatives bodies in the realm were the Etats généraux (created in 1302) which reunited the three estates of the realm (clergy, nobility, the third estate) and the "États provinciaux" (Provincial Estates).